The runs which are obtained by the ball hitting any part of the body except the bat and gloves, those runs are considered as Leg Byes.
The runs which are obtained by the ball not hitting the bat nor gloves nor any part of the body. In fact if the ball leaves away from the body with out any contact. Those runs are considered as Byes.
Just like byes, leg byes, wides, …etc these penalty runs are also included in the category of ‘Extras’.
When some cricketing actions like Illegal fielding, over rate problems (wastage of time), spoiling the middle of the pitch by stepping on the danger area directly (willingly) or naturally (Indirectly by fast bowlers)….happens,
At this scenario the field umpires can impose a penalty of 5 runs to the fielding side.
Stopping or trying to field the ball by cricket caps, ball hitting the helmets (fielding side) when rested on ground, trying (willingly) to intervene in batsman’s concentration comes under illegal fielding.
In some cases people may think like this, “some batsman try to insert the squash balls into their batting gloves for comfort ability so what is wrong if a fielder stops the ball with his cap or with his hand tied with a hand kerchief or any other piece of cloth”.
Yes, there is nothing wrong in people’s way of thinking and their questions but however fielding the ball with a cap or a hand tied with a piece of cloth is completely illegal according to ICC laws and also not good in the spirit of the game. If it happens the batting side would get a bonus of 5 runs as we said earlier. And also if a batsman gets out, he will be declared as ‘Not-Out’ by the field umpires.
But at the same time if a fielder is really hurt then he can ask and discuss with the umpire regarding his injury, there by he can protect his hands with a cloth, can field the ball and also can take the catch without any mistake.
And regarding squash ball, wearing the batting gloves, keeping gloves, batting pads, helmet are mandatory for the players and these things can be seen or visible directly by the umpires, but keeping the squash ball inside the batting glove is a hidden factor and is not visible directly to the umpires so it is not the duty and role of the umpires to look into these kind of rare things.